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Define textile wet processing? Describe various type of dyeing process.

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Textile wet processing is one of the major streams in textile engineering refers to textile chemical processing and applied science. It is usually done on the manufactured assembly of interlacing fibers, filaments, or yarns having a substantial surface area in relation to their thickness, and adequate mechanical strength to give them a cohesive structure. An alternative way to say, the wet process is done on manufactured fabric.

Textile wet processing

Textile wet processing is one of the major streams in textile engineering refers to textile chemical processing and applied science. It is usually done on the manufactured assembly of interlacing fibers, filaments, or yarns having a substantial surface area in relation to their thickness, and adequate mechanical strength to give them a cohesive structure. An alternative way to say, the wet process is done on manufactured fabric. The processes of this stream are carried out in an aqueous stage and thus it is called a wet process which usually covers pretreatment, dyeing, printing, and finishing. All of these stages are required an aqueous medium that is created by water. A massive amount of water is required in these processes per day. It is estimated that, on average, almost 100-110 liter of water is used to process only 1 kg of textile goods. Water can be of various qualities and attributes. Not all water can be used in the textile process, it must have certain characteristics, quality, color, and properties to be used in the textile process. That is why water is concerned with wet processing.

Various type of dyeing process

Dyeing is the process of adding color to textile products such as fiber, yarn, and textiles. It is usually made in a special solution containing dyes and certain chemical ingredients. Dye molecules have an unnecessary chemical bond with the fiber molecules after dyeing. Temperature and time control pigmentation are the two main factors. There are basically four classes of writing, all types of writing are as follows-

Solution dyeing

Solution dyeing is also called doping or span dyeing, the process of adding pigment to a spinning product before extruding the solution through a spinneret. Only the fibers produced can be dyed with a solution. It is used for solid to dye fibers such as olefin fibers and for dye fibers for the final color that require excellent coloring properties. As color pigments become part of the fiber, soluble pigments have colorlessness in the case of light, wash, abrasion, perspiration, and bleach. Dyeing at the solution stage is more expensive, as the equipment has to be thoroughly cleaned each time a different color is produced. Thus, the variety of colors and shades produced is limited. Besides, it’s hard to stock inventory for each color. Color decisions should be made early in the manufacturing process. Thus, this stage of coloring is not usually used for clothing.

Gel dyeing

The filament fibers that are made using the wet spinning method can be dyed while the fibers are still in the frozen bath. This method is known as gel dyeing because the fibers are still soft. This technique is known as gel dyeing.

Fiber dyeing

Different types of dyeing are done for dyeing fiber. The names indicate the stage on which the fiber is drawn, which includes all three broad sections of fiber dyeing.

Stock dyeing is the dyeing of raw fibers, also called stock, before they are aligned, blended, and cut into yarns.

In order to straighten the short strands and remove them, the top dyeing is done to make the wool fibers of worse color. This stage is known as the wool fiber top. Top dyeing is preferred for bad fur because the dye does not have to be wasted on the small fibers removed during the attachment process.

To dye the filament fibers before cutting them into short-staple fibers. At this stage, the filament fibers are known as tow.

The penetration of the dye in the fiber dye is great, so the amount of dye to dye at this stage is even greater. Fiber dyeing is comparatively more expensive than yarn, fabric, and product dyeing. The decision about color selection should be made early in the production process. Fiber dyeing is commonly used to dye wool and other fibers that are used to make yarn with two or more dyes. Fibers for tweed and fabric with a “heather” look are often fibrous colored.

Yarn dyeing

There are different types of yarn-dyed. Common forms are package form and hank form. Cotton yarns are mostly dyed in package form, and acrylic or wool yarn is dyed in hank form. In the uninterrupted filament industry, polyester or polyamide yarns are always dyed in package form, while viscose rayon yarns are dyed partly in hank form due to technology.

Fabric dyeing

This is also called piece dyeing, it is fabric dyeing after making. This is the most common method of dyeing economical and solid-colored fabrics. The color decision can be made after the fabric is made. Thus, it is suitable for quick response orders. Dye penetrations on solid fabrics may not be good, so yarn dyeing is sometimes used to dye on solid fabrics. Different types of dyeing machines are used to color the pieces. Equipment selection is based on factors such as dyes and fabric properties, cost, and intended end-use.

Union dyeing

It is a technique of dyeing where two or more types of fibers or yarns are in the same shade to achieve the appearance of the solid color fabric. Fabrics can be dyed using a single or multiple step or process. Union dyeing is commonly used to dye fabrics and blends of fabrics commonly used for clothing and home furniture.

Cross dyeing

Cross-dyeing is a process of dyeing blends or blending fabrics in two or more shades using different affinity dyes with different fibers. The cross-dyeing process can be used to create heather effects and to create plaid, check, or striped fabrics. Cross-dyed fabrics can be mistaken for fiber or yarn-dyed materials because the fabric is not a solid color, considered a feature of piece-dyed fabrics. It is not possible to make a visible distinction between cross-dyed fabrics and dyed fabrics at the fiber or yarn stage. Example of cross dyeing blue worsted wool fabric with polyester pinstripes. When dyed, wool yarns are dyed blue, whereas polyester yarns are white.

Cross dyeing is usually done with pieces of fabric dyed material. However, the same concept applies to yarn and product dyeing. For example, embroidered silk fabric with white yarn can be dyed and embroidered before placing an order to color the product.

Garment dyeing

Garment dyeing is also known as product dyeing, it is the process of dying after making products like hosiery, sweaters, and carpets. This layer of coloring is appropriate when all elements are colored in the same shade. This method is used for perfect hosiery dyeing as it is knitted using a tubular knitting machine and then sewn before dyeing. Dissolved carpets are often dyed after sinking, excluding carpets made using dissolved dyed fibers. This method is not suitable for many material garments like lining, zippers, and knitting threads, as each material can be dyed differently. The exception is to color the jeans with pigments for a “wine” look. Dyeing is used in tinting, while chemical or mechanical processes are used in acid-wash and stone-washing. After garment making, these products are given a “faded” or “used” look by the finished methods as opposed to death.

Dyeing at this stage is ideal for quick reactions. Many T-shirts, sweaters, and other types of casual wear are product colored to respond most to the fashion demand for certain popular colors. Made from dye fabric to make a few thousand garments and then sold best in dyed colors.

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